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Wawel i Smok Wawelski na pomarańczowym tle
Selected Aspects of Sustainable Engineering

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Nauki ekonomiczne » Nauki o zarządzaniu
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The monograph Selected Sustainable of Modern Engineering can be considered as a result of a fruitful scientific debate conducted during the VIII Krakow Conference of Young Scientists. The volume just presented to the reader consists of six papers written by 9 authors affiliated with universities, research institutions and enterprises located in Krakow, Poland. It includes a wide range of ideas, concepts, solutions and perspectives. The results included are related to the scientific projects conducted by young researchers in different fields of science.
The volume is opened with a chapter by Tadeusz Olkuski. The author presented the state of the resource base of energy sources and mining units in Poland. The share of individual energy sources in electricity production in Poland in 2012 and plans for new investments in the energy sector for the coming years have been shown. Hard coal, lignite, gas and renewable energy sources sectors have been analyzed. Both the current state and development perspectives have been analyzed. Attention was paid to the need to develop different ways of energy production, in order to enable the most environmentally friendly and sustainable production in the future.        
In the second chapter Roman Warchoł presents development of the legal environment in Poland, which is indispensable to create a liberalised energy market. The Third Party Access rule (TPA), considered to be the main criterion for assessing the progress of liberalisation in the electricity market, is analysed on the basis of developments in the electricity market. One can say: the more entities apply TPA, the more competitive is the market. The paper shows how long the process takes to adjust the electricity market in Poland to the requirements of EU regulations, as well as what more should be done to fully liberalise the energy market.        
In the next chapter by Michał Kopacz and Dominik Kryzia an original approach to the valuation of operational flexibility and value assessment of gas power generation technologies (CCGT) is presented. The method combines elements of real options and discount method as well as Monte Carlo simulation. Flexibility, resulting from the dynamic (optional) switching on and off gas blocks in the process of electricity generation, increases the economic efficiency of the entire production process. The flexibility was defined as an option to dynamically turn on and off the gas units. The switching is a combination of two options – turning on and off the production. For this purpose, the operational flexibility measurement model, taking into account the Monte Carlo simulation, which is discussed later in the article, has been made. The obtained results of the analysis indicate the existence of “added value”, resulting from taking into account the option that has a significant impact on the valuation and development of the risk profile of the entire project investment.
Mateusz Jakubiak and Małgorzata Śliwka devoted their paper to biological monitoring and its utilisation for environment assessment on the basis of the living organisms responses. This is the most important feature that distinguishes biological monitoring from the chemical methods. Biological monitoring provides information on the effects of pollutants on living organisms, chemical changes occurring in organisms, the bioaccumulation, synergistic and antagonistic effects of toxins in organisms as well as in trophic chains. The chapter presents modern methods of biological monitoring used in the assessment of environmental pollution – mainly of anthropogenic origin. The analysis presented in the article shows examples of methods for monitoring the characteristic components of the environment: air, water, soil and biodiversity.
The importance of sustainable transport and sustainable urban transport is presented by Katarzyna Gdowska and Roger Książek from perspectives of both European and regional developmental policies. Here is also mentioned the role that public transport system plays in a sustainable and smart city. Then the PT timetabling problem is analysed in terms of its being a result derived from the set of the PT network’s specific features, amongst which ones of the highest significance are those referred to synchronization required in a given PT system. In this paper the review of main approaches and methods developed for PT timetabling problem is presented. The paper is concluded with remarks on possible further directions of research on timetabling problem that can be conducted in the domains of both transportation science and operations research.


Preface 7

Analysis of the current state of the resource base of primary energy sources and the potential of renewable energy sources for the Polish energy sector  9 Tadeusz Olkuski Abstract  9
1. Introduction  9
2. Hard coal  11
3. Lignite  14
4. Natural gas  16
5. Renewable energy sources  19
6. Conclusion  21
References  22

Third Party Access right as a key element of the liberalisation of the electricity market in Poland – past experience and present challenges  25
Roman Warchoł Abstract  25
1. Introduction  25
2. Elements of the liberalisation of electricity markets  26
3. Developments in the legal environment  27
3.1. Directive 96/92/EC – beginnings of the liberalisation of the electricity market in Poland  27
3.2. Directive 2003/54/EC – intensification of the liberalisation processes in electricity markets  29
3.3. Directive 2009/72/EC and supplier switching procedure pursuant to IRiESD – the Grid Code  31
4. Summary  36
References  36

The level of competition on the global oil market  39
Dominik Kryzia, Michał Kopacz, Katarzyna Kryzia Abstract  39
1. Introduction  40
2. Measures of concentration  41
2.1. The concentration ratio CR  42
2.2. The measure of the number of entities with a certain minimum market share  42 
2.3. The Herfindahl–Hirschman index  42
2.4. The Gini coefficient  43
2.5. The entropy measure  43
2.6. The Shannon–Wiener index  44
3. The obtained results  44
3.1. Resources  44
3.2. Production  46
3.3. Exports  48
3.4. Imports  49
3.5. Consumption  50
4. Conclusions  51
References  52

Application of biological monitoring assessment of the ecological status of degraded areas  53
Małgorzata Śliwka, Mateusz Jakubiak
Abstract  53
1. Introduction  53
2. Biological methods for the assessment of air quality  55
3. Biological methods of water quality assessment  59
4. Biological methods for assessing the toxicity of bottom sediments and soils  61
5. Biodiversity – an important indicator of the environment state  63
6. Conclusions  65
References  66

Development of architecture in the context of sustainable development  69
Iwona Piebiak
Abstract  69
1. Introduction  69
2. “Building culture” in the context of sustainable development  70
3. Sustainable architecture  73
3.1. Sustainable architecture – definition  73
3.2. Architectural styles in sustainable architecture  74
3.3. Building materials and technologies  75
3.4. Environmental context. Building site surroundings  76
3.5. The functional layout. The interior of the building  76
3.6. The body of the building  77
4. Sustainable architecture in practice. Example analysis in terms of greenway solutions  77
4.1. Polish Aviation Museum, Cracow  77
4.2. Quattro Business Park, Cracow  79
5. Conclusions  81
References  82

Urban transit network timetabling problem in terms of sustainable urban transportation  85
Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska, Roger Książek
Abstract  85
1. Introduction  86
2. Sustainable urban transport policy  87
3. City public transport system and its role in a sustainable city  90
4. Public transport system timetabling problem as a significant aspect of urban sustainable transportation planning  91
5. Transfer synchronization  94
6. Concluding remarks  95
References  96

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