Tribology is the science of friction, wear and lubrication. Experiments connected with this science accompany a man from the dawn of history, but only during the rapid development of industry in 19th century, both the scientific research and work have deepened and developed the knowledge and understanding of tribology. On the grounds of it a new field of study, biotribology, emerged. Although it has also been present since the beginning, biology and nature kept its secrets. Then, only the development of modern scientific methods, testing equipment, metrology and diagnostics enabled the researchers to discover these secrets and explain the tribological processes which occur within living organisms.
On the current level of our contemporary knowledge, we try to discover, identify and replicate these solutions that are given to us now, but which have been formed and verified for centuries. The cognition of these phenomena and processes is not only fascinating from the scientific point of view, but can be for the benefit of medicine, especially in the field of orthopaedics, prosthetics and surgery.
Monika Gierzyńska-Dolna defines biotribology as a field of science that deals with analyses and descriptions of the resistance of movement in natural and artificial human joints and those of other living organisms, processes of lubrication and wear of joints and endoprostheses. It also studies the tribological properties of the materials that are used to produce all kinds of endoprostheses and develops the methodology of tests and designs of simulators, which allow the researchers to examine the tribological properties of biomaterials and strength properties of endoprostheses. The book presents the results of my own tests in the following areas: the identification of the shape of the joint structures and the distribution of thickness of the cartilage in the working zone of biobearings, the identification of the surface layer of the joint cartilage, the rheological properties of the synovial fluid as well as the analysis of the transfer of the locomotive loads by the structures of the natural and artificial joints.
The process of transferring the loadings in the particular contact that is characteristic to the normal human joints comprises the co-operating set of phenomena which decides on the optimal tribological conditions and functionality, durability and reliability.
"On the basis of standard and individual numerical procedures and laboratory experiments, the authoress proposed the methodology of strength analysis of joint as well as simulation of kinematics and contact of joint structures in the conditions of load and physiological movement. (...) The monograph contains new, valuable scientific and cognitive aspects in the field of biomedical engineering in the sphere of modeling tribological phenomena occurring in natural bearings."
Prof. Grzegorz Milewski,
Cracow University of Technology
"The scientific value of the monograph is for and foremost based on its exceptionality, so far in the publishing market there has not been any study of similar scientific significance which deals in detail with problems of tribology in big human joints. All the current trends of research in the field of tribology like: the analysis of determination of loads, displacements as well as bending and torque moments; classic, hydrodynamic, self-excited lubrication maintaining liquid or mixed friction of two cooperating bone structures performing incomplete reciprocating rotation within the joint, hydrodynamic extrusion of the lubricant between two approaching bone surfaces in the joint which are separated by the layer of the synovial fluid; determination of effort of bone and cartilage and its wear, have their place in the publication of A. Ryniewicz and are profoundly raised in cases where there are controversies. The authoress makes her own, bold and very probable hypotheses."
Prof. Jerzy Walocha,
Jagiellonian University Medical College
List of abbreviations 7
1. Introduction to the issues related to tribology of human joints 11
2. Methods of imaging the shapes of the joint structures 14
2.1. Computer Tomography and the tomography of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the identification and three-dimensional visualisation of joint structures 17
2.2. Determination of the shape of joint surfaces using coordinate measuring technique 30
3. Surface and solid modelling of the articular structures 46
3.1. Modelling of the knee joint 47
3.2. Modelling of the talocrural joint 52
3.3. Modelling of the temporomandibular joint 57
3.4. Accuracy estimation of the shape representation of biomaterials using measurement and imaging techniques 61
4. Analysis of the surface layer of the articular cartilage using the modern microscope methods 65
4.1. Scanning tests of the cartilaginous tissue 67
4.2. Tests using the atomic force microscopy 76
5. Rheological tests of the synovial fluid 84
5.1. Rotational tests 90
5.2. Oscillatory tests 91
6. Estimation of the conditions of transfer of loadings performed by modelled joint structures using finite element method 98
7. Numerical simulations of displacements and stresses in selected human joints 119
7.1. Knee joint 119
7.2. Talocrural joint 131
7.3. Temporomandibular joint 142
8. Selection and exploitation of artificial joints in the aspect of biotribology 150
9. Analysis of the tribological phenomena in the natural bearings 162