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Banery wysuwane

Trójwymiarowy widok kawerny wyługowanej w złożu solnym oraz zdjęcie minikawerny wyługowanej w bloku solnym
Solution Mining in Salt Deposits
Outline of recent development trends

Kategoria produktu
Nauki o Ziemi » Geologia
Typ publikacji
Liczba stron
Rok wydania

Underground solution mining in salt deposits has a long – over hundred years old tradition. In recent years, the main application of this technology is in creating underground storage volumes for crude oil, gas and fuels rather, than in brine production for chemical industry, as before.
Therefore, the leaching technology was significantly modified, utilizing computer simulations and sophisticated sonar surveys, to provide creation of caverns with proper, stable shape, which can be used for storage during long years.
Underground solution mining is a very narrow specialization, distinguishing a lot from borehole exploitation of other raw resources (crude oil, gas, sulfur). There is no more than few hundreds of solution mining specialists worldwide, working in salt leaching technology.
In present situation (2006), the high prices of oil and gas, as well as uncertainty of supplies are arousing anew the interest of oil concerns in salt cavern storage – similarly as 30 years ago. And also as 30 years ago, there will be necessity to train a new generation of solution mining specialists and to transfer to them the knowledge collected up to now.
This textbook is aimed at filling the gap in the solution mining literature. Its main goal is to easily and concisely present the problems connected with the solution mining and to describe their basics.

Spis treści

Introduction  7
1. Outline of salt deposits geology  11
1.1. Origin of salt deposits  11
1.2. Minerals and rocks in salt deposits  12
1.3. Lithostratygraphy of salt deposits  14
1.4. Shapes of salt deposits  16
1.5. World distribution of salt deposits  18
Bibliography  22
2. Cavern location within the salt deposit  23
2.1. Geological and mining conditions for the cavern location  23
Bibliography  28
3. Drilling, construction and well completion for solution mining  29
3.1. Drilling  29
3.2. Running and cementing the casing  31
3.3. The leaching completion  34
3.4. Tightness tests  37
Bibliography  39
4. Review of solution mining technologies  40
4.1. Short description of most frequently applied leaching technologies  41
4.1.1. Shape of the mined excavations  41
4.1.2. Methods of injecting the leaching medium into the cavern and removing the brine  44 
4.1.3. Development of caverns walls and methods of its modification  48
4.1.4. Cavern development - the initial cavern  50
4.2. Leaching technologies  52
4.3. Examples of solution mining systems applied in Poland to brine exploitation and storage caverns  53
Bibliography  55
5. Brine properties  56
5.1. Solubility of sodium chloride in water  56
5.2. Density of brine  59
5.3. Concentration of brine  60
5.4. Relation between brine density and concentration  61
5.5. Determining of salt content in brine  63
5.6. Industrial standards for brine  67
Bibliography  68
6. Leaching process  69
6.1. Soluble content and concentration distribution  69
6.2. Thermal effects  72
6.3. Insoluble content  74
6.4. Relation between salt production and cavern net volume  76
6.5. Leaching rate  77
6.6. Laboratory tests of the leaching rate  82
6.7. Physical models in salt blocks  84
Bibliography  86
7. Geomechanical aspects of cavern dimensioning  87
7.1. Mechanical properties of rock salt  88
7.2. Stability of excavations made in rock salt  91
7.3. Cavern dimensioning  93
7.4. Laboratory tests  95
7.5. In-situ tests  97
7.6. Other phenomena  99
Bibliography  99
8. Hydraulic aspects of solution mining  101
Bibliography  104
9. Designing of leaching technology  105
9.1. Conceptual study  105
9.2. Technical design of cavern leaching  106
9.3. Choosing of leaching technology  106
9.4. Remarks about errors in leaching technology  109
Bibliography  112
10. Computer modeling of leaching process  113
Bibliography  117
11. Monitoring of the cavern leaching process  119
11.1. Measurements and recording of leaching data  119
11.2. Technical design versus real leaching  120
11.3. Sonar surveying of cavern shape  121
11.4. Adjustment of the model parameters to sonar survey results  124
11.5. Short-term predictions for further leaching stages  126
Bibliography  126
12. Salt caverns for storage and waste disposal  127
12.1. Rock salt as a place for storage and disposal  127
12.2. Storage of usable substances  128
12.3. Examples of storage: Poland – storage of natural gas in KPMG Mogilno, storage of oil and fuels in PMRiP Gora  134
12.4. Example of disaster caused by wrong storage technology  136
12.5. Waste disposal  137
Bibliography  138
13. Solution mining impact on the surface  140
Bibliography  144
14. Caverns and wells abandonment  146
14.1. The brine volume in cavern to be abandoned  146
14.2. Why solution mined caverns cannot be tightly closed  148
14.3. Conclusions concerning cavern abandonment  150
Bibliography  151

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